Plant Based vs Meat Based Diets Which is Greener

Plant-Based vs. Meat-Based Diets: Which is Greener?

With globalization, more individuals are examining their diets and thinking about consuming fewer animal products as worry over climate change grows. Many people have begun to wonder why is plant-based meat better for the environment as it gains popularity. But how do plant-based meats truly compare in terms of environmental impact?

This article will analyze the differences between plant-based meat vs real meat, examining the evidence on environmental factors like greenhouse gas emissions, land usage, water usage, and sustainability. We’ll overview the plant-based meat advantages and disadvantages to provide a balanced perspective on this complex issue. By the end, you’ll have a clear sense of which diet has the lighter footprint.

The Rise of Plant-Based Meats

To provide some background it’s worth mentioning that the market, for plant-based meats is projected to experience growth over the decade. Specifically, it is estimated to increase from $4.6 billion in 2018 to an impressive $162 billion, by the year 2030. What’s driving this demand? A few key factors:

Health Consciousness

Many people link plant-based diets to possible health advantages, from managing weight to preventing disease. Making healthier decisions is becoming more and more important to consumers.

Environmental Concerns

With meat production tied to higher carbon emissions, land usage, and pollution, eco-minded consumers see plant-based diets to reduce their environmental footprint. This is a major motivation for plant-based meat vs meat environmental impact. Benefits of organic food in the post pandemic era.

Animal Welfare

Ethical concerns over large-scale animal agriculture lead some to seek alternatives to factory-farmed meat. Animal rights groups have raised awareness of the issues.


While currently more expensive than conventional meat, plant-based meat costs are projected to decrease as production scales up. This could make it more accessible to the average consumer.

As plant-based meat goes mainstream, food manufacturers and consumers are closely analyzing whether these alternatives live up to their environmental hype.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Cows generate methane as part of their digestive process, while land clearing for animal grazing and growing feed crops releases carbon stored in vegetation and soil. Fertilizers used to grow feed also produce nitrous oxide emissions.

Comparatively, plant-based meats generate far fewer greenhouse gas emissions as they cut out resource-intensive steps like raising livestock. Studies estimate the popular Impossible Burger generates around 90% less greenhouse gases than a traditional beef burger. The production footprint isn’t zero, given the agricultural impacts of growing ingredients like soy, but it’s markedly lower.

Water Usage

Animal farming contributes to, around 30% of the water footprint within the sector. It requires 15,000 gallons of water to produce one kilogram of beef.

The water usage of plant-based meat production pales in comparison. For example, producing the peas in a plant-based burger takes around 10 times less water than beef in a traditional burger. Plant-based meat uses 87-99% less water than animal meat production.

This massive water savings is partly due to the lack of drinking, servicing, and waste management water the animals require. Also, soy and other feed crops used for livestock require vast amounts of irrigation water to grow – water that is optional for plant-based meat ingredients.

Land Usage

Feeding and housing livestock is also highly land-intensive. An estimated 83% of global farmland is used for livestock rearing and grazing land, yet meat and dairy only make up 18% of global calorie and 37% of protein supply. Know Paneer Nutrition Facts

Shifting toward plant-based diets could free up vast areas of land. Estimates suggest plant-based meat uses 93-96% less land than beef production and 78-91% less than chicken production. Plant-based meats have a significantly lower land footprint compared to pigs and fish.

This freeing up of agricultural land could have ecological benefits like forest regeneration, increased biodiversity, and reduced soil erosion. More land could also be used for growing staple crops to feed growing human populations.


The outsized resource demand of livestock production means it is inherently less sustainable than a plant-based food system. Animal agriculture substantially strains croplands, grasslands, water supplies, and ecosystems. Given the resources used to produce animal feed, it also exacerbates food waste.

Plant-based diets rely on staple crops like grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables with lower environmental footprints. Shifting toward plant-based eating is one of the most impactful steps an individual can take for sustainability, given the planetary pressures of meat production.

Health Impact

A plant-based diet is linked to improved health indicators, such as lower cholesterol and blood pressure, and a lower risk for several diseases. But the health judgement is a little less clear when it comes to processed plant-based meats. It’s also the time to swap refined foods with organic, whole foods.

Despite having less saturated fat than animal meat, most plant-based meats are heavily processed and rich in sodium. On cholesterol levels, some specific items have positive effects, but these need to be supported by additional research.

Experts recommend focusing on whole plant foods like beans, legumes, and soy products for optimal health rather than relying too heavily on processed meat alternatives. Plant-based eating can be healthy, but food quality matters. Individuals must be aware of the processed food tsunami.

Plant-based meat Advantages and Disadvantages

To summarize, here are the main advantages of plant-based meat vs real meat:

  • Drastically lower greenhouse gas emissions
  • Much lower water usage
  • Require far less land for production
  • More environmentally sustainable
  • Avoid unethical factory farming practices
  • Promising health effects of some specific products

And the potential disadvantages of plant-based meat:

  • Tend to be highly processed foods low in nutrients
  • Often high in sodium content
  • Contain controversial additives and oils
  • Rely on genetically modified and intensively farmed ingredients like soy
  • Currently expensive compared to conventional meat
  • Long-term health effects not fully clear

While plant-based meats have a lighter environmental profile, consumers should be mindful of making healthy choices and supporting sustainable farming methods. Not all plant-based alternatives are created equal regarding wholesomeness and ethics.

The Role of Regulatory Policy

Governments are important in transitioning the meat industry towards more sustainable practices through regulatory policies and financial incentives. As the plant-based meat vs meat environmental impact of industrial animal agriculture become increasingly apparent, policymakers are acting.

Meat Taxes

One strategy is implementing taxes on environmentally destructive meat products. A “sin tax” on meat aims to reduce consumption while generating revenue that can subsidize sustainable agriculture. Denmark, for example, has had a tax on meat since 1993.

Analysis suggests Denmark’s meat tax contributes to Danes consuming 20% less meat than neighboring countries. Spain, Germany, Sweden, and Canada have also proposed meat taxes, though these still need to be implemented. Gradually ramping up tax levels while subsidizing consumer prices of plant-based alternatives can make this policy approach more effective.

Subsidies for Alternatives

Providing direct subsidies to plant-based and lab-grown meat producers can also drive growth in these emerging sectors. This helps scale up production to achieve cost reductions. Singapore recently unveiled a $144 million package to grow local production of cultured meat and egg alternatives.

Israel has similarly committed government funds to cultivate alternative protein innovation. These subsidies can accelerate technological advancements so that plant-based and lab-grown meats reach price parity with conventional meat sooner.

Emissions Regulations

Governments can regulate animal agriculture fertilizers, pesticides, and antibiotics that generate harmful emissions like nitrous oxide, ammonia, and methane. Stricter manure management regulations also reduce water pollution from effluent runoff.

The Netherlands and Denmark have implemented comprehensive Action Plans to cut ammonia emissions and phosphorus pollution from the livestock sector. The US state of California has regulated manure methane emissions from dairy and cattle farms. Expanding these efforts globally could have significant climate benefits.

The Future of Plant-Based Eating

The plant-based movement still has progress to make in terms of accessibility, affordability, and nutritional quality. But products are rapidly evolving to address these points – and meat alternatives are likely here for the long haul.

Consumer demand, environmental concerns, and animal welfare issues all seem poised to drive continued growth in meat alternatives. Advancements, in manufacturing and the use of ingredients will enable plant-based meat to mimic the taste, texture and cost of animal-based products.

Embracing plant-based diets whether on an occasional basis empowers individuals to have an impact, on the food system and make their preferences known through their purchasing decisions. Small dietary shifts multiplied by millions of people could transform how we farm, shop, and eat.

A Compassionate Future

When considering plant-based meat vs meat environmental impact, the environmental advantages favor plant-based alternatives as the eco-friendly choice. Meat production, especially beef, has an outsized damaging impact on the planet regarding land use, water consumption, pollution, and greenhouse gases.

Shifting toward plant-based eating – even partially – can drastically reduce your environmental footprint. Consumers should focus on whole plant foods and be selective about meat alternatives, favoring those with clean, ethically sourced ingredients.

While the movement, towards plant-based diets has made progress there are still areas where we can strive for improvement, such as ensuring nutrition and affordability. However, it’s undeniable that embracing a plant-based diet is becoming increasingly prevalent and will have a role, in building a society and food system for the future. Small changes collectively can enable a greener future.